Let us now discuss in detail the pin configuration of a Microprocessor. Clock signal is provided through Pin It provides timing to the processor for operations. Its frequency is different for different versions, i. During the first clock cycle, it carries bit address and after that it carries bit data.
During the first clock cycle, it carries 4-bit address and later it carries status signals. It is available at pin 34 and used to indicate the transfer of data using data bus D8-D This signal is low during the first clock cycle, thereafter it is active.
It is available at pin It is an active high signal. When it is high, it indicates that the device is ready to transfer data. When it is low, it indicates wait state. It is available at pin 21 and is used to restart the execution. It causes the processor to immediately terminate its present activity. It is an interrupt request signal, which is sampled during the last clock cycle of each instruction to determine if the processor considered this as an interrupt or not.
It stands for non-maskable interrupt and is available at pin It is an edge triggered input, which causes an interrupt request to the microprocessor.
This signal is like wait state and is available at pin When this signal is high, then the processor has to wait for IDLE state, else the execution continues.
It indicates what mode the processor is to operate in; when it is high, it works in the minimum mode and vice-aversa. It is an interrupt acknowledgement signal and id available at pin When the microprocessor receives this signal, it acknowledges the interrupt.In this mode, all the control signals are given out by the microprocessor chip itself. There is a single microprocessor in the minimum mode system.
Latches are generally buffered output D-type flip-flops like 74LS or Transreceivers are the bidirectional buffers and some times they are called as data amplifiers. The DEN signal indicates the direction of data, i.
The system contains memory for the monitor and users program storage. The working of the minimum mode configuration system can be better described in terms of the timing diagrams rather than qualitatively describing the operations.
Hence the timing diagram can be categorized in two parts, the first is the timing diagram for read cycle and the second is the timing diagram for write cycle.
During the negative going edge of this signal, the valid address is latched on the local bus. The BHE and A0 signals address low, high or both bytes. At T2, the address is removed from the local bus and is sent to the output. The bus is then tristated. The read RD control signal is also activated in T2. The read RD signal causes the address device to enable its data bus drivers. After RD goes low, the valid data is available on the data bus.
When the processor returns the read signal to high level, the addressed device will again tristate its bus drivers. A write cycle also begins with the assertion of ALE and the emission of the address. In T2, after sending the address in T1, the processor sends the data to be written to the addressed location.
The control of the bus is not regained by the processor until the requesting master does not drop the HOLD pin low. When the request is dropped by the requesting master, the HLDA is dropped by the processor at the trailing edge of the next clock. In this mode, the processor derives the status signal S2, S1, S0.8086 Microprocessor Timing Diagram open Box Education
If IOB is grounded, it acts as master cascade enable to control cascade A, else it acts as peripheral data enable used in the multiple bus configurations. INTA pin used to issue two interrupt acknowledge pulses to the interrupt controller or to an interrupting device. These signals enable an IO interface to read or write the data from or to the address port. Here the only difference between in timing diagram between minimum mode and maximum mode is the status signals used and the available control and advanced command signals.
R0, S1, S2 are set at the beginning of bus cycle. These signals are activated until T4. As an address bus is 20 bits long and consists of signal lines A0 through A The 16 data bus lines D0 through D15 are actually multiplexed with address lines A0 through A15 respectively. By multiplexed we mean that the bus work as an address bus during first machine cycle and as a data bus during next machine cycles.
The four most significant address lines A19 through A16 are also multiplexed but in this case with status signals S6 through S3. Bit S4 and S3 together from a 2 bit binary code that identifies which of the internal segment registers are used to generate the physical address that was output on the address bus during the current bus cycle. Status line S5 reflects the status of another internal characteristic of the The maximum mode defines pins 24 to 31 as follows:.
QS 1QS 0 output : These two output signals reflect the status of the instruction queue. This status indicates the activity in the queue during the previous clock cycle. By using bus request signal another master, can request for the system bus and processor communicate. In the maximum mode additional circuitry is required to translate the control signals. It also generates the control signals required to direct the data flow and for controlling latches and transceivers. The Intel bus controller is used to implement this control circuitry.
MWTC Memory Write Command : It instructs the memory to accept the data on the data bus and load the data into the addressed memory location. AEN causes the to enable the memory control signals. CEN control enable input enables the command output pins on the This gives slow interfaces an extra clock cycle to prepare to input the data. The Bus Timing Diagram of of input and output transfers are shown in the Fig. August 17, Intel is a bit HMOS microprocessor. It is available in 40 pin DIP chip.
It uses a 5V DC supply for its operation.
The uses line address bus. It has a line data bus. The 20 lines of the address bus operate in multiplexed mode. The low order address bus lines have been multiplexed with data and 4 high-order address bus lines have been multiplexed with status signals. These are low order address bus. They are multiplexed with data. S2, S1, S0 : Status pins. These pins are active during T4, T1 and T2 states and is returned to passive state 1,1,1 during T3 or Tw when ready is inactive.
Any change in S2, S1, S0 during T4 indicates the beginning of a bus cycle. During T1 it is low. It is used to enable data onto the most significant half of data bus, D8-D It is multiplexed with status signal S7. S7 signal is available during T2, T3 and T4.
It is an output signal. It is active when low. READY : This is the acknowledgement from the memory or slow device that they have completed the data transfer. The signal made available by the devices is synchronized by the A clock generator to provide ready input to the microprocessor. The signal is active high 1. This is triggered input. This is sampled during the last clock cycles of each instruction for determining the availability of the request.
If any interrupt request is found pending, the processor enters the interrupt acknowledge cycle. This can be internally masked after resulting the interrupt enable flag. This signal is active high 1 and has been synchronized internally. NMI : Non maskable interrupt.
This is an edge triggered input which results in a type II interrupt. A subroutine is then vectored through an interrupt vector lookup table which is located in the system memory. NMI is non-maskable internally by software. A transition made from low 0 to high 1 initiates the interrupt at the end of the current instruction. This input has been synchronized internally. INTA : Interrupt acknowledge.Pin definitions from 24 to 31 are different for minimum mode and maximum mode.
By using these pins the itself generates all bus control signals in the Minimum Mode Configuration of These signals are :.
Microprocessor - 8086 Pin Configuration
It consists of two negative going pulses in two consecutive bus cycles. The first pulse informs the interface that its request has been recognized and upon receipt of the second pulse, the interface is to send the interrupt type to the processor over the data bus. High on this pin indicates that the is transmitting the data and low indicates that the is receiving the data.
At the same time, processor tristates the system bus. A low on HOLD gives the system bus control back to the processor. Processor then outputs low signal on HLDA. These signals are demultiplexed by external latches and ALE signal — generated by the processor. The provides noninverting outputs while the version inverts the input data. In addition to their demultiplexing function, these chips also buffer the address lines, providing increased output driving capability.
The output low level is specified as 0. The high level is specified as 2. The Intel device is used to implement the transceiver block shown in Fig. The contains 16 tristate elements, eight receivers, and eight drivers. Therefore two s are required to service 16 data lines of When this signal is low, receivers are enabled, so that can read data from memory or input device.
Due to this drivers are enabled to transfer data from to the memory or the output device. At the time of data transfer, to enable output of transceiver its OE should be low. The third component. The clock generator does the following functions.Minimum Mode System. Minimum mode system. If it is received active by the processor before T4 of the previous cycle or during T1 state of the current cycle, the CPU activates HLDA in the next clock cycle and for succeeding bus cycles, the bus will be given to another requesting master.
The control of the bus is not regained by the processor until the requesting master does not drop the HOLD pin low. When the request is dropped by the requesting master, the HLDA is dropped by the processor at the trailing edge of the next clock. Maximum Mode System. Memory Write Timing in Maximum mode of Login New User. Sign Up. Forgot Password? New User? Continue with Google Continue with Facebook. Gender Male Female. Create Account. Already Have an Account? Full Screen.
In this mode, all the control signals are given out by the microprocessor chip itself. There is a single microprocessor in the minimum mode system. Latches are generally buffered output D-type flip-flops like 74LS or Transceivers are the bidirectional buffers and some times they are called as data amplifiers. The DEN signal indicates the direction of data, i.
Minimum and Maximum Mode 8086 System - Microprocessors and Microcontrollers | EduRev Notes
The system contains memory for the monitor and users program storage. Write Cycle Timing Diagram for Minimum Mode The working of the minimum mode configuration system can be better described in terms of the timing diagrams rather than qualitatively describing the operations. The opcode fetch and read cycles are similar. Hence the timing diagram can be categorized in two parts, the first is the timing diagram for read cycle and the second is the timing diagram for write cycle.
During the negative going edge of this signal, the valid address is latched on the local bus. The BHE and A0 signals address low, high or both bytes. At T2, the address is removed from the local bus and is sent to the output.
The bus is then tristated. The read RD control signal is also activated in T2. The read RD signal causes the address device to enable its data bus drivers. After RD goes low, the valid data is available on the data bus. When the processor returns the read signal to high level, the addressed device will again tristate its bus drivers.
A write cycle also begins with the assertion of ALE and the emission of the address. In T2, after sending the address in T1, the processor sends the data to be written to the addressed location. The data remains on the bus until middle of T4 state. In this mode, the processor derives the status signal S2, S1, S0. Another chip called bus controller derives the control signal using this status information. The components in the system are same as in the minimum mode system.
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Pin diagram of 8086 microprocessor
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